K3s/Kubernetes - Set up a K3s Cluster with your VPS (2)

# k3s # kubernetes  · 1243 words · 6 min · Pbulished On: September 26, 2022 (Last updated on: June 17, 2023)

Generating a basic K3s cluster is quite easy by following the K3s’s Doc. let try to modify it into High Availability Cluster. Single server cluster can meet a variety of use cases, but for environments where uptime of the Kubenetes control plane is critical, where we need the High Availability configuration. There are two ways for High Availability:

  1. High Availability with an External DB (for example, PostgreSQL, MySQL, MariaDB)
  2. High Availability with Embedded DB (etcd)

I chose the second one - with Embedded DB.


Here is the list of my device:

Node Name Location Specification OS Network IP
hilbert(master) Tencent Cloud (SH-CN) 4C8G Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Pbulic IP + Wireguard 1.xx.xx.xx +
cantor(master) Tencent Cloud (SH-CN) 2C4G Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Pbulic IP + Wireguard 110.xx.xx.xx +
newton(agent) Tencent Cloud (GZ-CN) 1C2G Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Pbulic IP + Wireguard 119.xx.xx.xx +

K3s Installation

K3s Server Node

To set up the Server, I follow the instruction from K3s with a little modification, since I want to customize the network and node name. Here is the command I used for server-installation:

curl -sfL https://get.k3s.io | K3S_TOKEN=<token>  INSTALL_K3S_EXEC="server \
        --node-ip $(ip addr show eth0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}') \
        --token $(openssl rand --hex 16) \
        --advertise-address $(ip addr show eth0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}') \
        --node-external-ip $(ip addr show eth0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}')  \
        --flannel-iface eth0   \
        --node-name $HOSTNAME \
        --cluster-init" sh -

where you can see that --node-ip is the ip address to advertise for node; --advertise-address is the ip address that apiserver user to advertise to members of the cluster; --node-external-ip is the external ip address to advertise for node; --flannel-iface is to override the default flannel interface.

For whom can not access Google and GitHub fluently, you may try:

# for whom can not access Google and Github fluently, you may try:
curl -sfL https://rancher-mirror.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/k3s/k3s-install.sh | INSTALL_K3S_MIRROR=cn INSTALL_K3S_EXEC="server \
        --node-ip $(ip addr show wg0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}') \
        --token $(openssl rand --hex 16) \
        --advertise-address $(ip addr show wg0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}') \
        --node-external-ip $(ip addr show wg0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}')  \
        --flannel-iface wg0   \
        --node-name $HOSTNAME \
        --cluster-init" sh -

To generate the token, I used openssl rand --hex 16.

Similarly, for the second server, you can use the same configuration above with IPs’ substitution.

K3s node

For the K3s node, you can simply reuse the above command with a modification: change server to agent:

curl -sfL https://rancher-mirror.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/k3s/k3s-install.sh | INSTALL_K3S_MIRROR=cn INSTALL_K3S_EXEC="agent \
        --server https://<server-ip>:6443 \
        --token <token> \
        --node-ip $(ip addr show wg0 | sed -n '/inet /{s/^.*inet \([0-9.]\+\).*$/\1/;p}') \
        --flannel-iface wg0 \
        --node-name $HOSTNAME" sh -

After the installation of the server and node, you may check whether the server can reach the node correctly:

sudo kubectl get nodes -o wide
# cantor    Ready    control-plane,etcd,master   9h    v1.24.6+k3s1   xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx   Ubuntu 20.04 LTS   5.4.0-126-generic   containerd://1.6.8-k3s1
# hilbert   Ready    control-plane,etcd,master   9h    v1.24.6+k3s1   xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx   Ubuntu 20.04 LTS   5.4.0-126-generic   containerd://1.6.8-k3s1
# newton    Ready    worker                      9h    v1.24.6+k3s1    Ubuntu 20.04 LTS   5.4.0-126-generic   containerd://1.6.8-k3s1

sudo kubectl top nodes
# NAME      CPU(cores)   CPU%   MEMORY(bytes)   MEMORY%
# cantor    445m         22%    2451Mi          71%
# hilbert   300m         7%     3942Mi          52%
# newton    90m          9%     1118Mi          56%

Helm Installlation

Helm is the package manager of kubernetes, where usually we can use it to download and install pre-packed applications to our cluster. To install it, we can go to helm’s GitHub release to find the compiled binary file and download it. Here is an example for the Linux amd64:

wget https://get.helm.sh/helm-v3.10.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz -O helm.tar.gz

tar -xvf helm.tar.gz
sudo mv linux-amd64/helm /usr/local/bi

helm version
# version.BuildInfo{Version:"v3.10.0", GitCommit:"ce66412a723e4d89555dc67217607c6579ffcb21", GitTreeState:"clean", GoVersion:"go1.18.6"}

Change the mirrors for Containerd (Optional)

For some reason, the China region’s network may be stuck and cannot connect (or very slow) to some of the website, sadly, gcr.ioandquay.io` are inside the list. Thus, we may need to change to the China’s mirrors.

For example: we can subsitute the quay.io with https://quay-mirror.qiniu.com and gcr.io we can use https://registry.aliyuncs.com. For the docker, we can use the Daocloud’s script to update the mirrors. This may help speeding up the installication process in the after step.

Cert-Manager Installation and Configuration

Cert-Manager is a cloud-native certificate management tool which can help us automatically sign SSL/TLC certificate from Let’s Encrypt with ACME. Typically, Cert-Manager offers two challenge validations - HTTP01 and DNS01 challenges. In here, we use DNS01, but for now, let us install the Cert-Manager first.

  1. Add the helm repository and update repo: sudo helm repo add jetstack https://charts.jetstack.io && sudo helm repo update 1
  2. Install the cert-manager: helm install cert-manager jetstack/cert-manager --namespace cert-manager --create-namespace --version v1.9.1 --set installCRDs=true (create a NS; cert-manager’s version is v1.9.1; install the CRD resources)
  3. Check the cert-manager’s status: sudo kubectl get pods --namespace cert-manager

After installing the cert-manager, we need to go to [Cloudflare’s dashboard(https://dash.cloudflare.com/profile) to create a API token with “Edit zone DNS” template, set permission: Zone - DNS - Edit and Zone - Zone - Read, other can be default. Remember that the API will only show onee, you may need to copy it before turn of the tab.

Create a yaml (cloudflare-api-token-secret.yaml and you may change the file name) and start a new Issuer:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
  name: cloudflare-api-token-secret # you may change the name
  namespace: cert-manager
type: Opaque
  api-token: <CF-API-TOKEN>

Create another yaml (ClusterIssuer.yaml):

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: ClusterIssuer
  name: letsencrypt-dns01
      name: letsencrypt-dns01
    email: <your-email-addr>
    server: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
    - dns01:
          email: <your-cf-account-email-addr>
            name: cloudflare-api-token-secret # need to be same with the above yaml metadata's name
            key: api-token

Create the third yaml (Certificate.yaml):

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Certificate
 name: <domain-name> # you may change the name
 namespace: default
  - example.com
  - "*.example.com"
   kind: ClusterIssuer
   name: letsencrypt-dns01 # Cite ClusterIssuer and use DNS01 for the challenge
 secretName: <secret-name> # the certificate with store in this cecret and you may change it 

Then, apply these three yaml file, and wait for a while. Use sudo kubectl describe certificate to check the status.

sudo kubectl describe certificate
NAME           READY    SECRET       AGE
<domain-name>   True    <secret>      1m

If it is ready, it means that the certificate is Issued.

Rancher Installation

It is easy to install the Rancher, Rancher is a complete software stack for teams adopting containers. It addresses the operational and security challenges of managing multiple Kubernetes clusters, while providing DevOps teams with integrated tools for running containerized workloads.

Similar to the installation of Cert-Manager:

sudo helm repo add rancher-latest https://releases.rancher.com/server-charts/latest # add 
sudo helm install rancher rancher-latest/rancher --namespace cattle-system --create-namespace --set hostname=rancher.k3s.cklau.ml --set bootstrapPassword=admin --set ingress.tls.source=secret

Then, we need to create a certificate and an ingress for Rancher where we can use our domain to access:

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Certificate
  name: tls-rancher-ingress
  namespace: cattle-system
  secretName: <secret-name>
  commonName: '*.example.com'
  - '*.example.com'
    name: letsencrypt
    kind: ClusterIssuer
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
  name: rancher
  namespace: cattle-system
    cert-manager.io/cluster-issuer: letsencrypt-dns01
  - host: rancher.example.com
      - backend:
            name: rancher
              number: 80
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
  - hosts:
    - rancher.example.com
    secretName: <secret-name>

After apply the yaml, we may check whether the rancher install properly: sudo kubectl get pods --namespace cattle-system and check rancher.example.com.

  1. For some reason, I met some problems with helm but they all correlated to the KUBECONFIG. Thus, you may copy the KUBECONFIG to ~/.kube/config and this may solve your problem: sudo cat /etc/rancher/k3s/k3s.yaml > ~/.kube/config ↩︎